Identity Layer


Ensuring the verifiability of user data across various platforms necessitates a unified system to uniquely identify each user. CARV introduces ERC-7231 as a solution, establishing a standard for representing a user’s aggregated identity on the blockchain via a Non-Fungible Token (NFT).


ERC-7231 extends ERC-721 by binding individuals’ Web2 and Web3 identities to non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and Soulbound tokens (SBTs). By binding multiple identities, aggregated and compossible identity information can be verified, resulting in more beneficial on-chain scenarios for individuals, such as self-authentication, social overlapping, commercial value generation from user targeting, etc. By adding a custom schema in the metadata, and updating and verifying the schema hash in the contract, the binding of NFT and identity information is completed. For details, visit: EIP-7231.

In an enhanced version, identities are structured within a Merkle tree, where each leaf represents a distinct ID. This configuration allows users to disclose specific IDs as needed, concealing their full identity spectrum from the computation layer. This approach minimizes the risk of data leakage and enhances the efficiency of data transfer.

Data Authentication

ERC-7231 facilitates the consolidation of identities from both Web2 and Web3 environments. These identities can be authenticated and integrated via CARVLink (Oracle), external verification services, or direct on-chain attestations. See below for more information.

Note: It's important to recognize that data can still be falsified, despite endorsements from third-party verifiers or the data provider itself. The credibility of the data ultimately depends on the consumer's confidence in the endorsing party's trustworthiness.

CARV Link operates as a decentralized Oracle service, developed on the ChainLink infrastructure. It facilitates the importation of user data from both web2 and web3 sources, utilizing Oracle services to create unique signatures that certify the authenticity of the data.

Data Provider

Naturally, data providers can vouch for the data they generate. For instance, a government can authenticate your passport, or a social media platform can validate your follower count. Data accompanied by the provider's signature serves as a powerful endorsement, affirming the data's authenticity directly from its source.

Third-party Verification

When data cannot be authenticated directly by the provider, a third-party entity can step in to endorse and validate its authenticity, gaining trust from the data consumer. For example, you can This endorsement is applicable to any type of data, provided the verification process is robust and reliable.

On-chain Attestation

Note: On-chain attestation is different from TEE attestation.

On-chain attestation can be produced via Zero-Knowledge proofs or other attestation services, providing another layer of validation.

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