Tech Architecture & Core Components

CARV Protocol consists of a self-sovereign identity (SSI) oracle and incentivized data-sharing protocol. It enables users to share value captured from data utility in a consent-based, privacy-preserving manner.
CARV Protocol Tech Architecture
Above is a fusion design of CARV protocol and user-facing products, with confidential computation, decentralized incentive, and self-sovereign identity layers encapsulated. And following is an in-depth look into the core components:


ERC 7231, an original and novel proposal that extends ERC 721, raised by CARV, binds every individual's Web2 and Web3 identities to non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and soulbound tokens (SBTs) to enable interoperable data flow across blockchains and services.
CARV ID - ERC 7231
CARV ID - ERC 7231
CARV Link is a decentralized oracle service used for secure and reliable interoperability between the blockchains and external data sources, services, and systems. CARV Link enables fetching and verifying on and off chain data, extending and enriching CARV Protocol applications scenarios.
CARV Protocol - CARV Link
CARV Protocol - CARV Link
Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is in the confidential computation layer of CARV Protocol. It's a hardware-based secure computing model that isolates a portion of the processor from the rest, enabling confidential computation on encrypted data:
  • Performing verification, signature, encryption, decryption, and other operations on data without revealing its content.
  • Giving users ownership and control over their own data. TEE can let users decide who can access their data and under what conditions.
  • Performing authentication and authorization of user data. It can generate verifiable proofs or digital signatures and assign access permissions based on user authorization.
CARV Protocol - Decentralized Data Infra
CARV Protocol - Decentralized Data Infra

Zero-Knowledge Proof

zk-SNARK: Zero-knowledge proof is the mechanism that validates and verifies the data in CARV Protocol. Verifying a proof is a computational operation that is logarithmic in the worst case to the mathematical statement, and the proof process does not require interaction between the prover and the verifier, only the proof needs to be passed to the verifier (non-interactive).
Through zk-SNARK, CARV Protocol can verify and prove users' on and off chain data, while ensuring minimal disclosure of user data, achieving privacy-preserving.


Cryptography is carried through CARV Protocol's confidential computation layer, which uses mathematical principles and algorithms to protect information and communication. The main encryption technologies used can be divided into symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption​.
  • Symmetric encryption algorithms to encrypt large amounts of data, increasing data privacy performance, and improving encryption/decryption efficiency
  • Asymmetric encryption to encrypt and decrypt key information such as main keys. To increase the security of key information and the efficiency of data processing
Cryptography also implements the following:
  • Signing data, ensuring data integrity. Signatures can be used to prove the source and authenticity of data. Using public keys or symmetric keys to encrypt data can prevent data from being read or tampered with by unauthorized people or organizations.
  • Securing transmission of data, preventing data from being intercepted or modified in the network. Secure transmission uses SSL/TLS protocol, a hybrid encryption protocol based on public key encryption and symmetric encryption, can provide identity authentication, confidentiality, and integrity guarantees for data.
  • Identity verification for users. Identity verification is a process that uses passwords, digital certificates, biometrics, and other methods to confirm user identity, which can prevent users from being impersonated or deceived.

Smart Contract

Smart contracts are the foundation of CARV Protocol. They are self-executing programs running on a blockchain, used to define and execute the rules and logic of protocols. Contracts can implement the core logic of the Protocol, such as token issuance, transaction mechanisms, incentive distribution, etc. Contracts can also implement the governing model of the protocol, like voting mechanisms, rule modifications, etc.


Subgraphs are part of the data source for CARV Protocol. They are open APIs based on The Graph protocol, used for indexing and querying events and states on the blockchain. Subgraphs enable fast and flexible retrieval and analysis of blockchain data, as well as visualization, statistics, optimization, and caching of user data.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning and artificial intelligence (ML/AI) drive intelligence further in CARV Protocol. They are data-driven functionalities based on data and algorithms to provide data services and solutions. ML/AI can optimize and recommend along the CARV Protocol data logic, as well as offer personalized and customized services for applications.